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The work of the Soviet advocacy to provide free legal assistance to Russian citizens and promotion of legal knowledge in 1918–1940 (on the materials of the Kursk region)


At present, not only theoretical, but also pragmatic interest in the historical experience of the Soviet state is growing. Not infrequently, this experience is passed off as short stories in modern reality. One of these misconceptions is the provision of free legal assistance to Russian citizens. The purpose of this work is to analyze the process of formation and activities of the lawyer community in Soviet Russia, where the main task is to study the identification of the reasons for the provision of free legal assistance to the population. The conclusion about the regulatory function of the state in providing comprehensive legal assistance to the population is substantiated. The methodological approach is based on the historical method, the formal legal method, and the dialectical method. It is established that the Soviet state administratively determined the rates for legal services provided, depending on the social status of a citizen and his income. The processes of growth of categories of persons receiving legal assistance free of charge are revealed. The role of the advocacy in the promotion of Soviet normative legal acts, primarily in the peasant environment, its public work as a whole is shown. Reasons and methods of liquidation of private practicing lawyers are substantiated. The identified documents allow you to re-evaluate a number of aspects in the activities of the Bar in the specified chronological framework.


Soviet advocacy, free legal advice, legal circles, private lawyer, agitation and propaganda activities, class approach

Full-text in one file





34:001.92(470.323) «1918/1940»




1. Kurskii D.I. (1918). Osnovy revolyutsionnogo suda [Fundamentals of the revolutionary court]. Materialy Narodnogo komissariata yustitsii [Materials of the People’s Commissariat of Justice]. Moscow, issue 1, pp. 7-10. (In Russ.) Available at: 2. Kurskii D.I. (1922). Rech’ na IV Vserossiiskom s”ezde deyatelei yustitsii [Speech at the 4th All-Russian congress of justice workers]. Materialy Narodnogo komissariata yustitsii [Materials of the People’s Commissariat of Justice]. Moscow, issue 16-17, pp. 76-84. (In Russ.) 3. Stuchka P.I. (1922). Pyat’ let revolyutsii prava [Five years of legal revolution]. Ezhenedel’nik sovetskoi yustitsii [Weekly Soviet Justice], no. 44-45, pp. 23-25. (In Russ.) Available at: 123456789/3341/1/sovetskaya_yustitsiya_%5b1922%5d_44-4.pdf 4. Prushitskii S. (1922). Mozhno li kommunistov posylat’ v kollegii advokatov? [Can communists be sent to bar associations?]. Ezhenedel’nik sovetskoi yustitsii [Weekly Soviet Justice], no. 29-30, pp. 3-4. (In Russ.) Available at: 5. Branderburgskii Ya.N. (1922). Revolyutsionnaya zakonnost’, prokuratura i advokatura [Revolutionary legality, prosecutor's office and advocacy]. Sovetskoe pravo [Soviet Law], no. 2, pp. 3-9. (In Russ.) Available at: 6. Isaev M. (1924). Podpol’naya advokatura [Underground Advocacy]. Moscow, Pravo i zhizn’ Publ., 24 p. (In Russ.) Available at: 7. Branderburgskii Ya.N. (1924). K voprosu o yuridicheskoi pomoshchi [On the issue of legal assistance]. Ezhenedel’nik sovetskoi yustitsii [Weekly Soviet Justice], no. 7-8, pp. 147-148. (In Russ.) Available at: 8. Belyakov G. (1928). Nuzhna ne zashchita, a yuridicheskaya pomoshch’ [Need not protection, but legal assistance]. Rabochii sud [Working Court], no. 3, pp. 265. (In Russ.) 9. Belyakov G. (1928). Nuzhen li zashchitnik v sude? (Kollegiya o kollegii) [Do you need a lawyer in court? (Board about the board)]. Rabochii sud [Working Court], no. 3, pp. 245-250. (In Russ.) 10. Kozhevnikov M.V. (1939). Sovetskaya advokatura [Soviet Advocacy]. Moscow, Legal Publishing House of the NKYU of the USSR, 52 p. (In Russ.) Available at: 11. Stetsovskii Yu.I. (1972). Advokat v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve [Lawyer in Criminal Proceedings]. Moscow, Yuridicheskaya literature Publ., 160 p. (In Russ.) Available at: 12. Kuritsyn M.V. (1971). Stanovlenie sovetskoi advokatury [The formation of the Soviet advocacy]. Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo [Soviet State and Law], no. 7, pp. 113-118. (In Russ.) Available at:Советское_государство_и_право_01940_№7.pdf 13. Sukharev I.Yu. (1972). Pyat’desyat let sovetskoi advokatury [Fifty years of Soviet advocacy]. Rol’ i zadachi sovetskoi advokatury [The Role and Tasks of the Soviet Advocacy]. Moscow, Yuridicheskaya literature Publ., pp. 3-39. (In Russ.) Available at: 14. Zhuravlev V.V. (1979). Dekrety sovetskoi vlasti 1917–1920-kh godov kak istoricheskii istochnik [Decrees of the Soviet Power of 1917–1920s as a Historical Source]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 399 p. (In Russ.) Available at: 15. Gorodetskii E.N. (1987). Rozhdenie sovetskogo gosudarstva, 1917–1918 [The Birth of the Soviet State, 1917–1918]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 349 p. (In Russ.) Available at: 16. Palibin N.V. (1998). Zapiski sovetskogo advokata: 20-e–30-e gg [Notes of a Soviet Lawyer: 20s–30s.]. Paris, YMCA-press, 204 p. (In Russ.) Available at: sovetskogo_advokata_20e__30e_godi.html#0 17. Klevtsov A.V. (2006). Stanovlenie i razvitie rossiiskoi advokatury v sovetskii period (1917–1991). Istoriko-pravovoi aspekt: dis. … kand. yur. nauk [Formation and Development of the Russian Legal Profession in the Soviet Period (1917–1991). Historical and Legal Aspect. Cand. Sci. (Law) diss.]. Moscow, 220 p. (In Russ.) Available at: 18. Solov’eva Yu.I. (2016). Osobennosti pravovogo statusa sovetskikh advokatov v sovetskii period [Features of the legal status of Soviet lawyers in the Soviet period]. Nauchno-metodicheskii elektronnyi zhurnal «Kontsept» = Scientific-methodological electronic journal “Koncept”, vol. 11, pp. 341-345. (In Russ.) Available at: 19. Solomatin E.N., Piryazeva N.E. (2016). Social portrait of lawyer in 1920–1930s. Istoriya. Istoriki. Istochniki. Elektronnyi nauchnyi zhurnal = History. Historians. Sources: Electronic Scientific Journal, no. 3, pp. 129-140. (In Russ.) 20. Pashin V.P., Bogdanov S.V., Zyuban O.P. (2004). Partiinaya nomenklatura v SSSR (1917–1930-e gody: stanovlenie, razvitie, bezrazdel’noe gospodstvo) [Party Nomenclature in the USSR (1917–1930s: Formation, Development, Undivided Dominance)]. Belgorod, State Enterprise “Belgorod Regional Printing House”, 316 p. (In Russ.) Available at: (accessed 17.11.2022) 21. Kadintsev A.Ya. (2007). Sovetskaya advokatura v gody Velikoi Otechestvennoi voiny [Soviet advocacy during the Great Patriotic War]. Advokat = Advocate, no. 12, pp. 75-80. (In Russ.)



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General theory and history of law and the state

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