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THE RESETTLEMENT OF UKRAINIANS IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF RUSSIA IN THE END OF XVI - FIRST HALF OF XVII CENTURY

Annotation

Migration process, developed in the zone of south frontier and connected with the spread of state territory of Russia in south direction, that were in the end of XVI - the first half of XVII century are characterized. In the end of XVI - first half of XVII century in the territory of south frontier of Russia - in Dniepr-Don forest-steppe - the Russian and Ukrainian colonizers met. Their interaction was difficult and contradictory. The competition in development of new lands was on the background of constant Tatars’ raids. The necessity of struggle against the Tatars was the stimulus to develop in Pole. The Russian service class people and their managing officials face the problem during its development - Ukrainian Kazaks-Cherkasy. The flow of Ukrainian migrants was really significant and their armed intrusions to the developed Russian territory were happening very often, the factor of struggle between the representatives of two peoples in the zone of frontier could not be ignored. The events connected with this struggle influenced the life of region and defined the pursuing in Pole policy of Russian not less than Tatar’s raids. The significant amount of Ukrainians tried to develop the constant settlements in regions, which were already considered to be Russian. In this situation Russian colonization had an advantage. It was made by the state, building fortifications, spreading sovereignty over new lands. Basing on the created armed forces, Russian reigning forced out the Ukrainian settlers the occupied territory. After the Smolenskaya war was over, Russia started to build Belgorod boundary. The build fortifications caused its final fortification in this region, let not only efficiently counteract the Tatars’ raids, but also to strengthen the control over the national Ukrainian colonization and made the Polish plan, which did not have any prospects to get back these territories. Thus, colonization policy, which was pursued by Russia, had more results, than spontaneous emigrant movement from Ukraine, that did not have state support. Anyway, in the conflict between Russian state and Ukrainian colonizers was found compromise. This compromise was lively and was the basis for the following coexisting of two peoples on one territory, which let Russia for the first half of XVII century to continue successfully the colonization of Pole. The supposition for reaching it was the combined struggle against Tatars’ raids. The basis was the service of Cherkasy in Russian service, as a result for decades on the south border of Russia was formed the special class of the population - service class Cherkasy. Standing out among Russian service class people and peasants, service class Cherkasy, due to the ethnic-cultural relationship and general orthodox faith, they adopted for the existence in Russia. This adaptation in the first half of XVII century was not full. The conflict of the service class Cherkasy with the local authorities and Russian neighbours was very common. These conflicts were caused not only by ethnic, but by property and legal counteractions. They appeared, basically, in disobedience to authorities and going out of Russian reign territory. These “Cherkasy treachery” caused rough reaction of Russian administration, as the going of the population back to Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth weakened Russian positions and strengthened the last ones. But, as they were becoming more experienced of joint living on the border and use of Cherkasy as Russian service class people, central and local authorities could have policy, providing the taking root of the migrants on new place. The experience of joint living, developed in the process of cooperation of the subjects of Russia and the migrants from Ukrainian land to Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the process of colonization of Dniepr-Don forest-steppe, further it played an important role in becoming of Russian-Ukrainian relations within the framework of one state.

Keywords

Russian state; the south of Russia; Dniepr-Don forest-steppe; Crimean Khanate; Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth; border

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DOI

10.20310/1810-0201-2015-20-10-47-70

UDC

94(47)

Pages

47-70

References

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Received

2015-08-17

Section of issue

Russian frontier: political, social and economic aspects (the south of russia in xvi – the end of xviii century)

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