Menu: Home :: go to Journal :: switch to Russian :: switch to English
You are here: all Journals and Issues→ Journal→ Issue→ Article

The concept of “real property” in the 21st century: possible options for changing the content


Devoted to the analysis of the “real property” concept evolution. The digitalization of economics and law requires a new awareness of the content of basic concepts of property law and, above all, a deeper understanding of what an immovable thing is. The direction of property law evolution largely depends on what this understanding will be. The purpose of the presented work is to determine the possible directions of the “real property” concept evolution. The work used such methods as the method of historical dialectical analysis, interdisciplinary research, comparative legal analysis. It is determined that the content and fundamental changes in the content of the concept “real property” were associated with the content and changes in the main economic settings of the ancient Roman period of history, the Middle Ages and the New Age. It is established that the origin of the concept of “real property” was associated with the introduction of the fiction of a single real estate object into the ancient Roman legal order, which, in turn, was associated with economic practices focused on class control over the land plots of cities. It is concluded that in the period of the New Age, a fundamental overcoming of the dominance of the fiction of a single real estate object in the conceptual space began, which was associated with new economic needs born of the industrial revolution. It is noted that in the course of economic evolution the very concept of “real property” can be overcome. This is due to the fact that as the law develops and the digital economy emerges, the number of fictions of immovable things increases. This state of affairs objectively leads to a radical change in the legal discourse in terms of understanding what an immovable thing is.


real property, unified property complex, legal fiction, land plot, superficies, premises, parking space

Full-text in one file









1. Sofronenko K.A. (ed.). (1961). Pamyatniki russkogo prava [Monuments of Russian Law]. Moscow, Yuridi-cheskaya literatura Publ., 503 p. (In Russ.) Available at: pamjatniki-russkogo-prava/Pamyatniki_russkogo_prava-8_Sofronenko_K_A.pdf 2. Shershenevich G.F. (1995). Uchebnik russkogo grazhdanskogo prava (po izd. 1907 g.) [Textbook of Rus-sian Civil Law (Based on the 1907 Edition)]. Moscow, 556 p. (In Russ.) Available at: 3. Von Bar C. (2014). Why do we need grundstücke (land units), and what are they? On the difficulties of di-vining a European concept of ‘thing’ in property law. Juridica International, vol. 22, pp. 3-15. 4. Mitilino M.I. (1914). Pravo zastroiki. Opyt tsivilisticheskogo issledovaniya institute [Building Lease. Expe-rience of Civil Research of the Institute]. Kiev, Typography of T. G. Meinander’s heritage, 323 p. (In Russ.) Available at: 5. Muromtsev S.A. (1877). Ocherki obshchei teorii grazhdanskogo prava: v 2 ch. [Essays on the General Theory of Civil Law: in 2 pts]. Moscow, A.P. Mamontov Typography, pt 1, 546 p. (In Russ.) Available at: 6. Kasso L.A. (1905). Zdaniya na chuzhoi zemle [Buildings on a Foreign Land]. Moscow, Izdanie knizhnogo magazina I.K. Golubeva Publ., 48 p. (In Russ.) Available at: 11701/17731/1/Zdaniya%20na%20chuzhoi%20zemle._.pdf 7. Savin’i K. (2010). Rimskoe pravo v srednie veka [Roman law in the middle ages]. In: Nemetskaya istori-cheskaya shkola prava [German Historical School of Law]. Chelyabinsk, 670 p. (In Russ.) Available at: 8. Veber M. (2017). Gorod [City]. Moscow, Strelka Press, 576 p. (In Russ.) Available at: 9. Pirson K. (2020). Prosto sobstvennost’: ee istoriya na latinskom Zapade. T. 2: Prosveshchenie, revolyutsiya i istoriya [Just Property. A History in the Latin West. Vol. 2: Enlightenment, Revolution and History]. Mos-cow, “Delo” Publishing House RANEPA, 432 p. (In Russ.) Available at: 10. Stepanov S.A. (ed.). (2019). Grazhdanskoe pravo: v 2 t. [Civil Law: in 2 vols.]. Moscow, Prospekt Publ., vol. 1, 928 p. (In Russ.) Available at:



Section of issue

Substantive law

Для корректной работы сайта используйте один из современных браузеров. Например, Firefox 55, Chrome 60 или более новые.