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PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN THE PROVINCIAL (REGIONAL) CENTERS OF RUSSIA IN XIX-XX CENTURIES: THE FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT (ON MATERIALS OF PENZA, RYAZAN, TAMBOV)

Annotation

The formation and development of public transport in the provincial (regional) centers of Russia in XIX–XX centuries is considered. The relevance of the topic is caused by the need to take into account the previous experience in the organization of transport provision of the population in the Russian cities at the present stage. The birth process of the urban transport system in the provincial and regional centers of the country is analyzed. Until the middle of the XIX century in such cities like Penza, Tambov, Ryazan there was not virtually demand for public transport. Only in the middle of 1920-s in the regional centers the attempts to make bus communication have been initiated. Despite the appearance of the first buses, the entire pre-war period was characterized by the lack of regular public transport of the citizens. The time of intensive quantitative and qualitative urban transport development begins in the postwar years. In the late 1940-s – early 1950-s the first trolleybus routes appeared and the number of buses significantly increased in Ryazan, Penza and Tambov. The second half of the twentieth century is the time of active development of mass public transport in the regional centers, the creation of an extensive route network and passenger growth. The period of highest rise is accounted for 1970–1980-s. In terms of socio-economic crisis of the late twentieth century, the city authorities had to deal with extremely complex and fundamentally new for their traffic management problems. Ecological effects of transport on the urban environment have become urgent. However, in the 1990s the passenger market has not experienced the crisis, it has fundamentally new structured, responding flexibly to the needs of the city. The conclusion is that the inconsistent, unbalanced, but progressive development of “catch-up” urbanization continued.

Keywords

public transport; municipal services; passenger transport; urbanization; Penza; Ryazan; Tambov

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DOI

10.20310/1810-0201-2016-21-10(162)-96-103

UDC

9(045)"311"(1-03)

Pages

96-103

References

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Received

2016-07-14

Section of issue

National history

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