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The establishment of “Gadar” Party Hindustan Centre (1923–1928)


The insufficiently explored page in the history of the Hindustan “Gadar” Party is discussed, namely the process of creation of its center in India. The difficulties are marked that were faced by the members of the party in the way of solving the problem: the need to create a pro-communist organization by nationalists, and the factual absence of manpower for this case. The main features of the first attempts at organization the headquarter in India (“Sanjhiwal Dal”) are reviewed: structure of the party, its aims, vision for the future of the country, directions of activities. The complicated relations of Sikhs with the Comintern in 1923–1925, that suffered because of the reluctance of nationalists to abandon the old, failed in the past, methods of struggle, main of which was the attempt to organize a rebellion in the Anglo-Indian army are characterized. It is showed the gradual transition of gadarits on the new ideological base, the beginning of their agitate activities among peasants, workers and students, and the role of Santokh Singh Dhardeo, the general secretary of the “Gadar” Party, in this process. This transition had led to the reorganization of the “Sanjhiwal Dal” and the establishment of the “Kirti Kisan Sabha”. The main features of the new party, differences between it and its predecessor, as well as its position relative to the central organization – the “Gadar” Party are analyzed.


“Gadar” Party; “Sanjhiwal Dal”; “Kirti Kisan Sabha”; Comintern; communist movement in India

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Foreign countries’ history

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