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Constitutions of Jawaharlal Nehru and Liaquat Ali Khan: correlation of political strategy and state and legal realia of independent India and Pakistan (1947–1956)

Annotation

India and Pakistan, which emerged on the political map of the world 70 years ago, with the end of two hundred years of colonial rule of Britain, appeared to be the first states in the South Asia that demonstrated the uniqueness of the algorithms of the sovereignty of the liberated countries of the East. To what extent was it possible to combine tradition and modernization in their state-building? Return to the Eastern despotism, monarchical princely forms of governing or the creation of republics? What was the role in the States of free Hindustan to be supposed for their religion, religious institutions? Could the system of separation of powers correspond to the traditional ideas of many Indian and Pakistani peoples about power? We describe the characteristics of the program models of the state system, developed by the leading political forces of Colonial India – the All-Indian National Congress and the Muslim League for the future independent Hindustan, and their correlation with the real state and legal foundations of the Indian Union and Pakistan, formed in 1947–1956. It is noted that the League had only a general idea of the state formation and nation-building of Pakistan, which could not but affect the specifics of the Muslim project “Two Nations-two Indias” and subsequently led Pakistan to slide to the military dictatorships. The interrelation of the development of democratic legislation with the ideas of social justice, equality of national and ethno-religious minorities and the title majority is shown, the emphasis is placed on the risks of violation of the historical multiculturalism of the Indian civilization. We have involved the Indian, Pakistani and British documentaries on state-legal, historical and political issues, archival materials of the National Archives of India.

Keywords

Indian Union; Pakistan; All-Indian National Congress; Muslim League; Constitution

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DOI

10.20310/1810-0201-2018-23-174-210-216

UDC

930.1(09)

Pages

210-216

References

1. Gopal S. (ed.). Selected Works of Jawaharlal Nehru. New Delhi, 1980, vol. 13. 2. Maklakov V.V. (compiler). Konstitutsiya Indii 1950 g. [Constitution of India of 1950]. Konstitutsii zarubezhnykh gosudarstv [Constitutions of Foreign Countries]. Moscow, 2006. (In Russian). 3. Basu D.D. Osnovy konstitutsionnogo prava Indii [Bases of Constitutional Law of India]. Moscow, 1986. (In Russian). 4. Yurlov F.N. Ot voskhoda do zakata. Dinastiya Neru–Gandi. Kniga pervaya. Motilal i Dzhavakharlal Neru [From the Dawn Till the Dusk. The Dynasty of the Nehru–Gandhi. The First Book. Motilal and Jawaharlal Nehru]. Moscow, 2015. (In Russian). 5. Filimonova A.L. Ideya natsionalnoy identichnosti: opyt Pakistana [The Idea of National Identity: Pakistan Experience]. Moscow, St. Petersburg, 2013. (In Russian). 6. Long R.D. (ed.). “Dear Mr. Jinnah”: Selected Correspondence and Speeches of Liaquat Ali Khan, 1937–1947. Karachi, 2004. 7. Kazimi M.R. Liaquat Ali Khan. His Life and Work. Karachi, 2003. 8. Belokrenitskiy V.Y., Moskalenko V.N. Istoriya Pakistana. XX vek [History of Pakistan. The 20th Century]. Moscow, 2008. (In Russian). 9. Gankovskiy Y.V., Moskalenko V.N. Tri konstitutsii Pakistana [Three Constitutions of Pakistan]. Moscow, 1975. (In Russian). 10. Pleshov O.V. Islam, islamizm i nominalnaya demokratiya v Pakistane [Islam, Islamism and Formal Democracy in Pakistan]. Moscow, 2003. (In Russian). 11. Callard K. Pakistan. A Political Study. London, 1957.

Received

2018-02-13

Section of issue

Foreign countries’ history

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