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The Orthodox church and the care of orphans in the 19th – early 20th century (on the materials of the Tambov Eparchy)
The practice of social protection of orphans in the Tambov Governorate of the 19th – early 20th century through the prism of Orthodox charity and monastic charity is studied comprehensively and systematically. On the basis of a wide range of primary materials, primarily periodicals, various little-known aspects of the claimed scientific problem were studied representatively. We summarize the domestic experience of studying the system of charitable initiatives of the Orthodox clergy in provincial Russia, which had significant differences from the realities of the capital. The peculiarity of the care organizations of orphans of the spiritual estate at the regional and district level, which allows to assess the realities of social protection in the Tambov Eparchy of the chronological period, is studied. The possibilities of monastic charity and its significance in the context of charitable activities are clarified. Special consideration is given to the rules of care for orphans in monasteries in the years of peace and during the Russian-Japanese War in 1904–1905 and the First World War in 1914–1918. The main motives and incentives for charitable activities of large regional monasteries were identified, which reflected the general trends in the development of provincial society in the Russian Empire of the examined period. Conclusions are drawn about the results and experience, traditions and features of the activities of parish caregivers to support orphans at the level of the province and county, which allowed to successfully reconstruct this part of the social protection system of pre-revolutionary Russia. Attention is drawn to the importance of taking into account regional specifics and specific historical manifestations of charitable support of the Orthodox clergy, as well as the assessment of socio-cultural and ethno-religious positions of the regional society. The influence of the practice of orphans care in the monastery shelters in the period of education and training, as well as subsequent socialization is clarified. It is proved that the Orthodox clergy very rarely showed their own initiative to care for orphans in the region, but the orders of the eparchial authorities determined the ideology and practice of provincial charity through the prism of spiritual bonds and values of mercy.
monastic orphanages; orphaned children; children care; social protection; charity organizations; regional charity; provincial society
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