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The Orthodox church and the care of orphans in the 19th – early 20th century (on the materials of the Tambov Eparchy)

Annotation

The practice of social protection of orphans in the Tambov Governorate of the 19th – early 20th century through the prism of Orthodox charity and monastic charity is studied comprehensively and systematically. On the basis of a wide range of primary materials, primarily periodicals, various little-known aspects of the claimed scientific problem were studied representatively. We summarize the domestic experience of studying the system of charitable initiatives of the Orthodox clergy in provincial Russia, which had significant differences from the realities of the capital. The peculiarity of the care organizations of orphans of the spiritual estate at the regional and district level, which allows to assess the realities of social protection in the Tambov Eparchy of the chronological period, is studied. The possibilities of monastic charity and its significance in the context of charitable activities are clarified. Special consideration is given to the rules of care for orphans in monasteries in the years of peace and during the Russian-Japanese War in 1904–1905 and the First World War in 1914–1918. The main motives and incentives for charitable activities of large regional monasteries were identified, which reflected the general trends in the development of provincial society in the Russian Empire of the examined period. Conclusions are drawn about the results and experience, traditions and features of the activities of parish caregivers to support orphans at the level of the province and county, which allowed to successfully reconstruct this part of the social protection system of pre-revolutionary Russia. Attention is drawn to the importance of taking into account regional specifics and specific historical manifestations of charitable support of the Orthodox clergy, as well as the assessment of socio-cultural and ethno-religious positions of the regional society. The influence of the practice of orphans care in the monastery shelters in the period of education and training, as well as subsequent socialization is clarified. It is proved that the Orthodox clergy very rarely showed their own initiative to care for orphans in the region, but the orders of the eparchial authorities determined the ideology and practice of provincial charity through the prism of spiritual bonds and values of mercy.

Keywords

monastic orphanages; orphaned children; children care; social protection; charity organizations; regional charity; provincial society

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DOI

10.20310/1810-0201-2018-23-176-154-164

UDC

93/94

Pages

154-164

References

1. Arkhipov S.V. Blagotvoritel'nost' russkoy pravoslavnoy tserkvi vo vremya russko-turetskoy voyny 1877–1878 gg. [Russian Orthodox church charity during the Russian-Turkish War of 1877–1878]. Vestnik Moskovskogo oblastnogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: istoriya i politicheskie nauki – Bulletin of the Moscow Region State University. Series: History and Political Sciences, 2015, no. 3, pp. 125-133. (In Russian). 2. Apkarimova E.Y. Tserkovno-prikhodskaya blagotvoritel'nost' na Srednem Urale vo vtoroy polovine XIX – nachale XX v. [Church and parish charity in the Middle Urals in the second half of the 19th – early 20th century]. Blagotvoritel'nost' v istorii Rossii: Novye dokumenty i issledovaniya [Charity in the Russian History: New Documents and Studies]. St. Petersburg, 2008. (In Russian). 3. Ulyanova G.N. Blagotvoritel'nost' v Rossiyskoy imperii, XIX – nachalo XX veka [Charity in the Russian Empire, the 19th – Early 20th Century]. Moscow, 2005. (In Russian). 4. Sokolov A.R. Blagotvoritel'nost' v Rossii kak mekhanizm vzaimodeystviya obshchestva i gosudarstva (nachalo XVIII – konets XIX v.) [Charity in Russia as a Mechanism of Society and State Cooperation (Early 18th – Late 19th Century)]. St. Petersburg, 2006. (In Russian). 5. Vadkovskiy A. Golos sel'skogo svyashchennika o neobkhodimosti izyskat' sposoby k vspomoshchestvovaniyu bednym i sirotam dukhovnogo proiskhozhdeniya [The village priest’s voice on necessity of searching ways to help the poor and clergy orphans]. Tambovskie eparkhial'nye vedomosti [Tambov Eparchial Journal], 1870, no. 1, pp. 17-24. (In Russian). 6. M. Uchilishcha-priyuty pri zhenskikh monastyryakh [Orphanage schools in nunneries]. Tambovskie eparkhial’nyye vedomosti [Tambov Eparchial Journal], 1882, no. 23. (In Russian). 7. Arefev M.A., Baev V.G. Miloserdie i blagotvoritel'nost' kak verouchitel'nye printsipy khristianskoy tserkvi [Mercy and charity as creedal principals of Christian church]. Vestnik Leningradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta im. A.S. Pushkina – Vestnik of Pushkin Leningrad State University, 2011, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 74-81. (In Russian). 8. Shcherbinin P.P. Voenniy faktor v povsednevnoy zhizni russkoy zhenshchiny v XVIII – nachale XX v. [The Military Factor in Everyday Life of the Russian Woman in the 18th – Early 20th Century]. Tambov, 2004. (In Russian). 9. P-iy N. Monastyri Tambovskoy eparkhii v dele sluzheniya gosudarstvu za istekshiy god voyny [Monasteries of the Tambov Eparchy at the state service for the last year of the war]. Tambovskie eparkhial’nyye vedomosti [Tambov Eparchial Journal], 1915, no. 38. (In Russian).

Received

2018-07-10

Section of issue

National history

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