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Historical aspects of appearing and development of criminal responsibility for banditry in Russia

Annotation

The subject of the study is the historical aspects of the criminalization of banditry in different time periods. In the earliest statutes of ancient Russia particular responsibility for the commission of such crimes were already identified. For committing banditry criminal law provides for the most severe punishment – from imprisonment to the death penalty. For the first time officially, the term “thuggery” was used in establishing the Decree SNK RSFSR of July, 20, 1918 “On the court”. By the end of the 30’s, early 40’s of 20th century the signs of arms and stability are crucial in qualifying banditry. Gang activity is not stopped even during the Great Patriotic War. A characteristic feature of the gang war there was a large amount of weapons. As punishment for banditry, the death penalty usually was sentenced. Situation prevailing in the postwar years led to the creation of the Main management for anti-gang struggle as part of the NKVD. The relationship between banditry with other crimes was solved differently in different time periods. The sharp increase of gangs occurred when the USSR collapsed. Thus, whereas in 1988 according to the Interior Ministry of the USSR there were 73 gangs in 1992, on the territory of Russia 513 organized crime groups of gangster orientation are reported. Currently, on the background data about the reduction of common crime the number of banditry remains at the same level, suggesting further research on this issue in order to improve the criminal law.

Keywords

crime; criminal responsibility; armed robbery; assault; punishment; facilities

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UDC

343.3/.7

Pages

154-161

References

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Received

2014-10-31

Section of issue

Civil society and state

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