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The nature of the development of large land ownership in Galicia in 1848–1902

Annotation

We analyze the development nature of large-scale land tenure in Galicia in 1848–1902. We substantiate the dependence of social and economic state of the Rusyns-Ukrainian peasantry on the agrarian reform carried out in the Austrian Empire in 1848. We analyze the national composition of landowners (predominantly Poles). We characterize the remnants of the serfdom system in Galicia, in particular, easements problems (rights to use the landowner’s forests, meadows, pastures). We consider the order of easements replacement on smaller land plots of non-cultivated land (in comparison with the territory available with the right to use) in favor of peasants. We analyze the economic development of owner’s lands in the second half of the 19th century. We provide the conclusion about the agriculture mechanization degree lagging behind the Western Austrian lands in connection with peasant overpopulation and the associated cheapness of labor force, as well as the high cost for the impoverished Polish szlachta (nobility) of imported machines. We consider the level of employees’ wages in the agricultural sector, the duration of working day. The decrease in the wages share is due to the use of modern agricultural machinery, which has reduced the contribution of the employee to the harvest. We characterize the taxes distribution between landowners and peasants.

Keywords

Galicia; landlordism; employees; national identity; szlachta (nobility)

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DOI

10.20310/1810-0201-2019-24-181-198-203

UDC

93/94

Pages

198-203

References

1. Franko І. Zemel’na vlasnist’ u Halychyni [Land ownership in Galicia]. In: Franko І. Zіbr. tvorіv: u 50 t. [Complete Works: in 50 vols.]. Kiev, 1986, vol. 44, bk 1, 682 p. (In Ukrainian). 2. Svyezhinskiy P.V. Ahrarni vidnosyny na Zakhidniy Ukrayini v kintsi XIX – na pochatku XX st. [Agrarian Relations in Western Ukraine at the End of 19th – Early 20th Century]. Lvіv, 1966, 192 p. (In Ukrainian). 3. Budzinovs’kiy V. Khlops’ka posіlіst’ [Hlopian Destiny]. Lvіv, 1901, 98 p. (In Ukrainian). 4. Vіtenko M.D. Pol’s’ke velyke zemlevolodinnya v Halychyni (kin. XIX – poch. XX st.) [Polish large land tenure in Galicia (late XIX – early XX century)]. Visnyk Prykarpats’koho universytetu. Istoriya – Bulletin of the Precarpathian University. History, 2008, no. 14, pp. 72-78. (In Ukrainian). 5. Kravec M.M. Selyanstvo skhidnoyi Halychyny i pivnichnoyi Bukovyny u druhiy polovyni XIX st. [Peasantry of Eastern Galicia and Northern Bukovina in the Second Half of the 19th Century]. Lvіv, 1964, 240 p. (In Ukrainian). 6. Zlupko S. Ideyna borot’ba navkolo ahrarno-selyans’koho pytannya v Halychyni (kinets’ XIX – poch. XX st.). [Ideological Struggle Around the Agrarian-Peasant Question in Galicia (Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries)]. Lvіv, 1960, 84 p. (In Ukrainian). 7. Kacharaba S., Rozhik M. Ukrayins’ka emihratsiya. Emihratsiynyy rukh zi Skhidnoyi Halychyny ta Pivnichnoyi Bukovyny u 1890–1914 rr. [Ukrainian Emigration. Emigration Movement from Eastern Galicia and Northern Bukovina in 1890–1914]. Lvіv, 1995, 124 p. (In Ukrainian). 8. Bachins'kiy Y. Ukrayins’ka imihratsiya v z'yednanykh derzhavakh Ameryky [Ukrainian Immigration in the United States]. Lvіv, 1914, vol. 1, 493 p. (In Ukrainian).

Received

2019-04-09

Section of issue

Foreign countries’ history

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