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Piecework forms of hiring workers in the landowner’s household of the Tambov Governorate at the late 19th century

Annotation

We describe the working conditions of piecework workers of landowner’s household of Tambov Governorate at the late 19th century. We analyze the specifics of early forms of employment, the amount of wages, and the relationship between the employee and the employer. The relevance of the research is determined by the need to fill the historiographical gap in the study of working conditions of piecework workers, its significance for the development of the landowner’s household after the abolition of serfdom. The novelty of the work is determined by a comprehensive study of agricultural hiring in landowner’s economies, consideration of both collective and individual forms of employment of piecework workers. The source for this work was the materials describing large Tambov estates, collections of statistical data on the Tambov Governorate. It is shown that piecework workers received money for performing a strictly defined task by mutual agreement with the landowner. Such workers could be employed in different areas of the landowner’s household. At the same time, it is established that the economic format of the absolute majority of piecework workers in Tambov economies was associated with the procedure of returning the debt to the landowner. This allowed to reduce the amount of real payments to piecework workers. Based on the study of workers’ labor, it is revealed that in addition to the monetary form of advance hiring for field work, the region also widely practiced the in-kind form of payment, secured by lease agreements for the sublease of land. It was found that the winter hiring of workers and the reduction of wages created the ground for abuse of hired workers.

Keywords

large-scale land ownership; landowner’s household; entrepreneurship; Tambov Governorate; hired workers

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DOI

10.20310/1810-0201-2020-25-187-140-147

UDC

93/94

Pages

140-147

References

1. Anfimov A.M. Krupnoye pomeshchich’ye khozyaystvo evropeyskoy Rossii. (Konets XIX – nachalo XX v.) [Large Landowner Household of European Russia. (Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries)]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1969, 394 p. (In Russian). 2. Volkov V.V. Otechestvennaya istoriografiya rynka truda v sel’skom khozyaystve Rossii kontsa XIX – nachala XX v.: dosovetskiy period [The domestic historiography of the labor market in the Russian agricultural sector of the late 19th – early 20th centuries: the period prior to the USSR]. Vestnik Leningradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta im. A.S. Pushkina – Pushkin Leningrad State University Journal, 2014, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 9-15. (In Russian). 3. Shakhovskoy N.V. Otkhozhiye sel’skokhozyaystvennyye promysly [Seasonal Work in Agricultural Fields]. St. Petersburg, Typography of Government Herald, 1895, 157 p. (In Russian). 4. Varb E. Nayemnyye sel’skokhozyaystvennyye rabochiye v zhizni i v zakonodatel’stve: obshchestvenno-yuridicheskiye ocherki [Hired Agricultural Workers in Life and Legislation: Social and Legal Essays]. Moscow, “Book business” Publ., 1899, 238 p. (In Russian). 5. Milyutin V.P. Rabochiy vopros v sel’skom khozyaystve Rossii [The Working Issue in Agriculture in Russia]. Petrograd, Zhizn’ i znaniye Publ., 1917, 84 p. (In Russian). 6. Yaroshko A. Rabochiy vopros na Yuge: Ego proshedsheye, nastoyashcheye i budushcheye [The Labor Issue in the South: Its Past, Present, and Future]. Moscow, I.N. Kushnerev i K° Typography, 1894, 217 p. (In Russian). 7. Polferov Y.Y. Sel’skokhozyaystvennyye rabochiye ruki [Agricultural Workers]. St. Petersburg, Editorial Board of Periodical Edition of the Ministry of Finance “Vestnik Finansov” and “Torg.-prom. gaz.” Publ., 1913, 53 p. (In Russian). 8. Drozdov I.G. Zarabotnaya plata zemledel’cheskikh rabochikh v Rossii v svyazi s agrarnym dvizheniyem 1905–1906 gg. [Wages of Agricultural Workers in Russia in Connection with the Agrarian Movement 1905–1906]. St. Petersburg, M.I. Semenov Publ., 1914, 68 p. (In Russian). 9. Ponomarev N.V. O peredvizhenii sel’skokhozyaystvennykh rabochikh, napravlyayushchikhsya v Novorossiyskie gubernii [On the Movement of Agricultural Workers Traveling to the Novorossiysk Governorates]. St. Petersburg, V. Kirshbaum’s Typography, 1895, 73 p. (In Russian). 10. Kovalchenko I.D. Agrarnyy stroy Rossii vtoroy poloviny XIX – nachala XX veka [The Agrarian System of Russia in the Second Half of the 19th – Early 20th Centuries]. Moscow, 2004, 504 p. (In Russian). 11. Shapovalov V.A., Starchenko G.I. Evolyutsiya soslovnoy struktury obshchestva Tsentral’nogo Chernozem’ya v poreformennyy period (na primere Kurskoy gubernii) [Evolution of the Class Structure of the Society of the Central Black Earth Region in the Post-Reform Period (on the Example of the Kursk Governorate)]. Belgorod, 2005, 428 p. (In Russian). 12. Shcherbina F.A. V kakikh zakonakh nuzhdayutsya sel’skiye rabochiye? [What laws do rural workers need?]. Severnyy vestnik [North Herald], 1887, no. 5, p. 75. (In Russian). 13. Lipskiy. Tseny na rabochiye ruki pri zablagovremennom nayme na sel’skokhozyaystvennyye raboty [Advance Hiring Prices for Agricultural Work]. St. Petersburg, A. Novikov Publ., 1902, 153 p. (In Russian).

Received

2020-06-10

Section of issue

National history

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