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The financial position of students in the early Soviet period

Annotation

We consider the financial situation of students of Soviet universities in the 1920s. The relevance of the study is due to the growing interest in the history of everyday life, in particular, soviet students in the 1920s. The main approaches to the study of this problem are the theories of psychological development, life world and social interaction. In the first decade after the October Revolution, a reform of higher education was carried out, in which the proletarian students were supposed to play the leading role, therefore, since 1918, financial assistance was provided to needy students (scholarships, rations, provision of places in hostels, etc.). However, in the realities of social and economic upheavals, with an annual increase in the number of young students, the state could not afford to provide even the minimum needs of students. During the New Economic Policy period, the material situation of the majority of students deteriorated sharply, since students rarely had support from their parents, paid for their studies, housing, food and household needs. The research is mainly based on students’ letters “to power”, which reflect a wide everyday and emotional spectrum: moods, feelings, attitudes towards power and mentality; problems faced by students as a result of the transformation of education and the state.

Keywords

student; material support; scholarship; dormitory; higher school; Soviet authority

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DOI

10.20310/1810-0201-2021-26-190-184-190

UDC

93/94

Pages

184-190

References

1. Rozhkov A.Y. V krugu sverstnikov. Zhiznennyy mir molodogo cheloveka v Sovetskoy Rossii 1920-kh godov [In the Circle of Peers. The Life World of a Young Man in Soviet Russia in the 1920s]. Moscow, 2014, 640 p. (In Russian). 2. Ermoshko A.G. Izmeneniye sotsial’nogo oblika studenchestva Petrogradskogo/Leningradskogo universiteta v pervyye gody sovetskoy vlasti (1917–1925) [Changes in the social image of the student body at Petrograd/Leningrad University during the first goals of the Soviet regime (1917–1925)]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Seriya: Istoriya – Perm University Herald. History, 2011, no. 2 (16), pp. 137-144. (In Russian). 3. Rozhkov A.Y. Student kak zerkalo Oktyabr’skoy revolyutsii [Student as a mirror of the October Revolution]. Rodina [Motherland], 1999, no. 3, pp. 68-74. (In Russian). 4. Panin E.V. Material’no-bytovyye usloviya zhizni studenchestva internatsional’nykh i natsional’nykh kommunisticheskikh universitetov Sovetskoy Rossii (1920–1930-e gg.) [Financial and living conditions of student community of international and national communistic universities in the Soviet Union in 1920−1930]. Teoriya i praktika obshchestvennogo razvitiya – Theory and Practice of Social Development, 2012, no. 3, pp. 165-168. (In Russian). 5. Sinanov B.A. «Novoye studenchestvo» Severnoy Osetii v 1920-e gg.: vydvizhentsy v vuzakh SSSR [The “new students” in North Ossetia in the 1920s: promotion candidates in the USSR institutes of higher education]. Izvestiya Altayskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta – Izvestiya of Altai State University, 2009, no. 4-3 (64), pp. 196-198. (In Russian). 6. Ushmayeva K.A. Kul’tura i byt prepodavateley i studentov Rossii v 1920-e gody [Culture and everyday life of teachers and students of Russia in the 1920s]. Golos minuvshego. Kubanskiy istoricheskiy zhurnal [Voice of the Past. Kuban Historical Journal], 2006, no. 3-4, pp. 34-40. (In Russian). 7. Amaliyeva G. «Sochuvstvuyu RKP(b), tak kak ona dala mne vozmozhnost’ uchit’sya v vuze…» Sotsial’naya podderzhka i kontrol’ studentov Kazanskogo universiteta v 1920-e gody [“I sympathize with the RCP (b), as it gave me the opportunity to study at a university...” Social support and control of students of Kazan University in the 1920s]. Sovetskaya sotsial’naya politika 1920–1930-kh godov: ideologiya i povsednevnost’ [Soviet Social Policy of the 1920s–1930s: Ideology and Everyday Life]. Moscow, 2007, pp. 414-428. (In Russian). 8. Strebkova N.V. Material’noye polozheniye studentov saratovskikh vuzov v 1920-e gg. [Living status of the students of Saratov higher education facilities in 1920s]. Klio, 2014, no. 9 (93), pp. 70-72. (In Russian). 9. Tatarchukov A.N. (ed.). Material’noye polozheniye studentov Voronezhskogo universiteta [Financial Situation of Students of Saratov Universities in the 1920s]. Voronezh, 1928, 57 p. (In Russian). 10. Zhilyakov D.V. Material’no-bytovyye problemy studenchestva sibirskikh vuzov v 1920-e gg. [Household and material problems of students in Siberian universities in 1920s]. Izvestiya Altayskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta – Izvestiya of Altai State University, 2008, no. 4-1 (60), pp. 50-51. (In Russian). 11. Petachenko G.A. Byt sovetskogo studenchestva na stranitsakh molodezhnykh izdaniy 1920-kh – nachala 1930-kh gg.) [Life of Soviet students on the pages of youth publications of the 1920s – early 1930s)]. Rossiyskiye i slavyanskiye issledovaniya [Russian and Slavic Studies], 2010, no. 5, pp. 75-79. (In Russian). 12. Kassel L. Gde zhe budet zhit’ vuzovets novogo priyema [Where will the student of the new admission live?]. Izvestiya, 1928, 27 September, p. 5. (In Russian). 13. Ovcharov A. Gol’yanovka [Golyanovka]. Izvestiya, 1928, 2 August, p. 4. (In Russian). 14. Korotin Y.N. Material’noye polozheniye natsional’nogo studenchestva v 1920-e gody (na materialakh sredney Volgi) [The financial situation of the national students in the 1920s (based on materials from the middle Volga)]. Sbornik statey 3 Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii «Aktual’nyye problemy istorii politiki i prava» [Proceedings of the 3rd All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference “Current Problems of the History of Politics and Law”]. Penza, 2015, pp. 47-52. (In Russian).

Received

2020-09-10

Section of issue

National history

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