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Infant mortality of peasant population of Oryol province in beginning of 20th century

Annotation

The dynamics and causes of child mortality in the village Oryol province on microdemography level are studied. Based lie with statistics registers of births settlements Oryol province, kept in the State archive of Oryol region. For the study Bolhovo typical localities, and Kromsk and Livensk counties of Oryol province were taken, distinguished by time of settlement, position relative to the urban center of the county , as well as a ratio of the proportion living in their former state and possessory peasantry. This study aims to examine a particular model of demographic behavior of society. The article also carried out a comparative analysis of the causes of death among children and adolescents, typical for rural Orel province in the middle of the 19th century and early 20th century. According to the information received, it was concluded that maintaining a high level of infant mortality in the studied parishes, more than 25 % of children born and die within the first year of life. At the same time this study showed that in the settlements located near the cities, and therefore with a more efficient health care system, for the period from 1900 to 1918 a significant reduction in the proportion of children who died in the overall mortality of residents was observed. And it happened against the background of continuing growth of born babies. This fact confirms the thesis about the beginning of the transition of Oryol villages from the traditional demographic behavior of peasantry to the modern. The most common causes of death were weakness, “childish” colds and infectious diseases. Study of infant mortality is an important point for constructing historical and geographical differences between large regions of Russia. Its review to the material in the Oryol region in comparison with the neighboring provinces of South, Central Russia shows sustainable conservation is traditionally a high level of child mortality inherent to agricultural regions, as well as a significant cause of mortality dependence on the geographical conditions of the region.

Keywords

historical demography; peasantry; child mortality; Oryol province

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UDC

930:314

Pages

138-147

References

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Received

2014-05-07

Section of issue

Link of time: history of societies and civilizations

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