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FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL GROUP OF TEACHERS OF CITY SCHOOLS (ON MATERIALS OF TAMBOV IN 1872-1912)
Article is about professional and social activity of teachers of city schools in post-reform provincial Tambov. A role of city schools in the second half of XIX-the beginning of XX century is difficult to overestimate. On the one hand, modernization of the country caused increase of literacy in socially and economically active layer - the young men leaving a family and native places for employment in the cities on factory productions, on transport, in services sector and trade. On the other hand, the type of the «semi-intelligent» person who, under certificates of contemporaries, was the most active participant of revolutionary events created. It is clear that social and professional properties of teaching structure characterized effectiveness of educational institutions. Being based on such multidimensional statistical source as «Reports of the Tambov town council» from 1883 to 1907, authors succeeded to make the database displaying information on quantitative and social characteristics of this professional group (number of teachers in separate school, a surname, a name, a middle name, class accessory, occupation of the father or spouse (for teachers), education, the teacher's rank, year of definition on service managing school). So, the prevailing estate among a teaching was the clergy and the nobility which objectively had the best possibilities of education. The Tambov teaching (also as well as across all Russian Empire) was one of the few professions where the considerable share was women. By the beginning of the XX century the city teaching had the society of mutual aid, issued the specialized magazine. Thus, at the beginning of the XX century the teacher's environment represented the developed professional community.
Russian Empire; social and cultural infrastructure; reform of primary education; modernization; intellectuals; professional community
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