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Actuality of modernization typology problem for carrying out of concretely historical investigations is substantiated. The reasons of acute debatable of this problem in Russian liberal arts are set. Russian scientists’ points of view about criterions and types of modernization processes are analyzed. It is concluded that from the beginning modernization theory was popular because of desire to set possibilities of Russian history inclusion in modernization paradigm. It sets dichotomy variant of modernization discourse when they highlighted organic and overtaking types. They were based on internal/external impulsion and simultaneity/non-simultaneity of processes. Then modernization typology received more different character as a result of studying in details. Author’s dichotomy variant of modernization processes is presented. Main criterions of classic and overtaking types of modernization are region, start conditions, time of beginning, character, first sphere of society activities, actors of carrying out, mechanism, rates and results of development. The arguments for designated approach usage in historical investigations of empire period in Russian history are presented.


methodology; typology; organic modernization; overtaking modernization; internal/external impulsion; simultaneity/non-simultaneity of processes; non-wholeness

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Modern russian society

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