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Russian borrowings in the Karakalpak language
The study is devoted to the issues of interinfluence of Russian and Karakalpak languages on a basis of borrowings by calquing. Borrowings of Russian words and word combinations by calquing specified as one of sources of enrichment of the lexicon of modern Karakalpak language. We analyze the features of some calqued terms. We characterize the ways of word formation by calquing method. Thematic directions and tendencies of forming of calques are highlighted. The process of calquing is shown in the light of historical development of society in different periods. Words and word combinations calqued from Russian into Karakalpak language, are subdivided on morphology-syntactic and semantic structure. Full and semi calques are analyzed. Various forms of perception in the Karakalpak language of word combinations of the Russian language by calquing are indicated. Some peculiarities of structural and semantic calques in Karakalpak language are discussed. Calqued lexical units are considered from the point of morphological structure. We analyze the calques formed by some suffixes. We characterize the linguistic phenomena occurring in the language during calquing using prefixes. We also discuss the problems of calquing in Karakalpak language of compound words from Russian languages, analyze the calques formed in Karakalpak language as the result of this process. We indicate the ways of forming semantic calques: determinologization, terminologization, conversion. The main factors of the semantic calquing appearance in the Karakalpak language are identified and substantiated.
borrowing; calque; calquing; semi and full calques; structural and semantic calques, semantic calques, enrichment of lexicon of the Karakalpak literary language by calques of Russian and international words, principles of calques classification
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