Menu: Home :: go to Journal :: switch to Russian :: switch to English
You are here: all Journals and Issues→ Journal→ Issue→ Article

Microbiocenosis of pharyngeal and palatine tonsils in chronic inflammatory pathology of pharynx in children


Chronic tonsillitis and adenoiditis in children is one of the unsolved problems in otorhinolaryngology. There are no specific pathogens of chronic adenotonsillitis, but there are still disputes about the viral, bacterial and fungal etiology of this disease. Chronic tonsillitis is a persistent chronic inflammation of the palatine tonsils, characterized in the vast majority of patients by recurrent exacerbations in the form of sore throats and a general toxic-allergic reaction, which is a frequently realized etiological factor of many local and general diseases and a catalyst for pathological processes in the body. Adenoid vegetations are pathological hypertrophy of the pharyngeal tonsil. Chronic adenoiditis is a chronic polyethological disease, which is based on a violation of the physiological immune processes of the pharyngeal tonsil. In children, it is impossible to talk about isolated inflammation of the pharyngeal tonsil, since as a result of exposure to antigens, an immune response occurs that involves all structures of the lymphoepithelial pharyngeal ring in the process, therefore some researchers use the term “adenotonsillitis”. With a pronounced violation of the microflora in the nasopharynx and oropharynx, the body's resistance to pathogenic microorganisms decreases, as a result, decay products and toxins lead to damage to the vascular endothelium, disrupt their permeability and, penetrating through the epithelial barrier, contribute to the development of chronic intoxication and sensitization of the body.


microbiocenosis; chronic tonsillitis; adenoiditis

Full-text in one file









1. Belova O.V., Novikova E.A., Yakushenkova O.P. Effectiveness of endoscopic adenotomy in children - results of long-term follow-up. Kremlevskaya meditsina. Klinicheskiy vestnik = Kremlin Medicine Journal. 2008;1:27-8. (In Russian). 2. Meshcheryakov K.L. Cytokines and Nitric Oxide in Chronic Pathology of the Lymphoid Ring of the Pharynx in Children. Cand. med. sci. diss. thesis. Moscow; 2010, 22 p. (In Russian). 3. Hellings P., Jorissen M., Ceuppens J.L.The Waldeyer’s ring. Acta Otorhinolaryngol. Belg. 2000;54:237-41. 4. Masieri S., Trabattoni D., Incorvaia C. et. al. A role for Waldeyer's ring in immunological response to allergens. Curr. Med. Res. Opin. 2014;30(2):203-5. DOI 10.1185/03007995.2013.855185 5. Kuznetsov P.L., Borzunov V.M. Syndrome of endogenous intoxication in the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis. Eksperimental'naya i klinicheskaya gastroenterologiya = Experimental and Clinical Gastroenterology Journal. 2013;(4):44-50. (In Russian). 6. Rybak N.A. Microflora of palatine tonsils and metatonsillar complications at chronic tonsillitis. Klinicheskaya infektologiya i parazitologiya = Clinical Infectology and Parasitology. 2014;(3):31-40. (In Russian). 7. Piskunov G.Z. Piskunov S.Z. Guide to Rhinology. Moscow, Littera Publ.; 2011. (In Russian). 8. Debertin A.S., Tschernig T., Tönjes H. et al. Nasal‐associated lymphoid tissue (NALT): frequency and localization in young children. Clinical & Experimental Immunology. 2003;134(3):503-7. DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2249.2003.02311.x 9. Brandtzaeg P., Kiyono H., Pabst R. et al. Terminology: nomenclature of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Mucosal Immunology. 2008;1(1):31-37. DOI 10.1038 / mi. 2007. 9 10. Palchun V.T., Magomedov M.M., Luchikhin L.A. Otorhinolaryngology. Moscow, GEOTAR-Media Publ.; 2011. (In Russian). 11. Terskova N.V., Vakhrushev S.G., Smbatyan A.S., Sizova E.N. Age quantitative and functional indicators of immune system of children with chronic adenoiditis depending on the association of biological species of microorganisms. Rossiyskaya otorinolaringologiya. 2012;3:126-39. (In Russian). 12. Hafizova F.A. Clinico-Laboratory and Immunomorphological Substantiation of Treatment Tactics of Various Clinical Forms of Chronic Tonsillitis. Dr. med. sci. diss. thesis. Moscow; 2012, 45 p. (In Russian). 13. Pokrovskaya E.M., Khaliullina S.V., Khaliullina K.R., Rakhmanova O.A., Skvortsova I.I., Kozlova V.T. Etiological structure of adenotonsillitis agents in children. Prakticheskaya meditsina = Practical Medicine. 2016;3(95):58-63. (In Russian). 14. Egorova V.B., Cherkashin M.P., Kolmakova A.Yu. Children who get sick often: clinical features and microbiological characteristics of upper respiratory ways. Vestnik severo-vostochnogo universiteta imeni M.K. Ammosova. Seriya: Meditsinskie nauki = Vestnik of North-Eastern Federal University. Medical Sciences. 2019;2(15):43-7. (In Russian). DOI 10.25587/SVFU.2019.2(15).31311 15. Mashkova T.A., Zheltova A.N., Beloborodova L.L. Improved diagnosis of the severity of chronic decompensated tonsillitis. Vestnik otorinolaringologii = Bulletin of Otorhinolaryngology. 2010;5:35-7. (In Russian). 16. Taranova S.V. Pathogenetic Substantiation and Directions of Treatment of Chronic Diseases of Nasally Associated Lymphoid Tissue in Preschool Children. Cand. med. sci. diss. thesis. Vladivostok; 2014, 22 p. (In Russian).



Section of issue

Clinical medicine

Для корректной работы сайта используйте один из современных браузеров. Например, Firefox 55, Chrome 60 или более новые.