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Huangpu military academy in political strategy by Chiang Kai-shek (1924–1928)

Annotation

In 1924 the South-Chinese government which was headed by Sun Yatsen, the leader of the Guomindang (Nationalis Party), with the assistance of the USSR founded the military school, well-known as the Huangpu (Whampoa) Military Academy. By the Soviet leaders’ reckoning, this school like other institutions, which were created with the Soviet assistance, had to promote the development of revolution in China in order to establish the pro-Soviet regime there. Moscow leaders’ strategic plan included the task to reorganize the Guomindang’s armed forces by means of installing into them the “skeleton” of commanding cadres, which had to be politically indoctrinated in military schools of various Guomindang army troops where Soviet advisers could penetrate. However, the group of Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi), which formed in the Guomindang, was taking shape of its own political strategy, alternative to the Soviet one. In the focus of the efforts of this group was the Huangpu (Whampoa) Military Academy, which had to become the exclusive military and political “nucleus” of the future Guomindang’s army and, therefore, the Guomindang’s state. The chief of Huangpu Academy Chiang Kai-shek and his supporters, leaning on the Soviet finance, logistical and advising assistance and making use of the miscalculations of the Soviet politics in China, managed to turn the Huangpu Military Academy into the pillar of anticommunist forces in the Guomindang army and organizational base of the Guomindang institutions of political indoctrination and propaganda, special services and public bodies. Former officers and cadets of the school constituted one of the leading factions in the Guomindang – “Huangpu (Whampoa) clique”, the members of which played an important role in ensuring political positions of Chiang Kai-shek and, in the future, of his son Jiang Jingguo, who was the leader of the Guomindang’s regime in Taiwan in 1976–1987.

Keywords

Guomindang (Kuomintang); Huangpu (Whampoa) Military Academy; Soviet assistance to the Guomindang; Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek); unification of China; Huangpu (Whampoa) clique; Fuxingshe

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UDC

951.092

Pages

136-143

References

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Received

2014-08-02

Section of issue

Link of time: history of societies and civilizations

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